City of Marion Engineering & Traffic Department: Stormwater & Sewer Management (2022)

Com­bined Sew­er Over­flow (CSO) and Stormwa­terManagement

The mis­sion of Mar­i­on’s Stormwa­ter Man­age­ment pro­gram is to devel­op, imple­ment, oper­ate and equi­tably fund the acqui­si­tion, con­struc­tion, oper­a­tion, main­te­nance and reg­u­la­tion of stormwa­ter col­lec­tion and drainage sys­tems and activ­i­ties with­in the city includ­ing improve­ments to the city’s exist­ing com­binedsewers.

The pro­gram shall safe­ly and effi­cient­ly con­trol stormwa­ter run-off, enhance pub­lic health and safe­ty, pro­tect lives and prop­er­ty, facil­i­tate mobil­i­ty and enable access to homes and busi­ness­es through­out the com­mu­ni­ty dur­ing storms. The pro­gram shall also con­trol the dis­charge of pol­lu­tants con­tained in stormwa­ter to receiv­ing waters in order to enhance the nat­ur­al resources of thecommunity.

The Mis­sissinewa Riv­er and its trib­u­taries are one of Mar­i­on’s most valu­able resources. The pro­tec­tion and enhance­ment of this resource improves the qual­i­ty of life for Mar­i­on cit­i­zens and assists in attract­ing new busi­ness­es, jobs, and res­i­dents to ourcommunity.

Wet Weath­erChallenges

The City of Mar­i­on faces two types of prob­lems caused by rain events and snowmelt:

  • Sur­face water drainage prob­lem areas are defined as areas where water from rain­storms fre­quent­ly impedes mobil­i­ty and lim­its access to homes and busi­ness­es through­out thecommunity.
  • Sur­face water qual­i­ty prob­lems in the Mar­i­on area are caused by acom­bi­na­tion of point and non-point sources of pol­lu­tion. This com­bi­na­tion of pol­lu­tant sources can con­tribute to adecrease in water qual­i­ty in Mar­i­on’s water­ways dur­ing rain events and snowmelt.
  • In many cas­es these two prob­lems are inter­re­lat­ed and long-term solu­tions require strate­gic plan­ning to avoid future com­pli­ca­tions, but for the pur­pos­es of this dis­cus­sion the two class­es of prob­lems will be looked atseparately.

Sur­face Water Drainage (readmore)

The City of Mar­i­on main­tains approx­i­mate­ly 500miles of san­i­tary sew­er, com­bined sew­er and sep­a­rat­ed storm sew­er lines. Main­te­nance activ­i­ties include the clean­ing of catch basins and sew­er lines and the replace­ment of dam­aged storm water col­lec­tion struc­tures and sew­er pipes. The City con­tin­u­al­ly works to iden­ti­fy and resolve prob­lem sur­face water drainage areas. The projects imple­ment­ed to address these areas vary wide­ly in size and scope. In some cas­es, drainage prob­lems can be resolved by sim­ply clear­ing an obstruc­tion in acatch basin or sew­er line, but in oth­ers, the prob­lem is more com­plex and requires the design and con­struc­tion of new infra­struc­ture. Thor­ough plan­ning is required in these sit­u­a­tions to ensure that the pro­posed project does not adverse­ly impact oth­er prop­er­ties or the water qual­i­ty of the receiv­ingstreams.

Sur­face Water Qual­i­ty (readmore)

The State of Indi­ana has water qual­i­ty stan­dards that all waters of the state are required to meet. The Indi­ana Water Qual­i­ty Stan­dards rule is to restore and main­tain the chem­i­cal, phys­i­cal, and bio­log­i­cal integri­ty of the waters of thestate.”

To achieve this goal, there are spe­cif­ic lim­its for var­i­ous pol­lu­tants out­lined in the rule. City, coun­ty, and state gov­ern­ment agen­cies col­lect sam­ples from streams, rivers, and lakes through­out the state to deter­mine if the water qual­i­ty stan­dards are beingmet.

Over the past ten to fif­teen years alarge num­ber of sam­ples have been col­lect­ed from the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er and its trib­u­taries in the Grant Coun­ty area in order to deter­mine com­pli­ance with Indi­ana Water Qual­i­ty Stan­dards. These sam­ples were col­lect­ed and ana­lyzed by numer­ous gov­ern­ment agen­cies and pri­vate orga­ni­za­tions. Adetailed analy­sis of all avail­able sam­ples from the past 10years indi­cates that E. coli is the only pol­lu­tant found in excess of the water qual­i­ty stan­dards in asig­nif­i­cant num­ber of the sam­ples. E. coli is present in the intesti­nal tracts of all warm-blood­ed ani­mals and is used to indi­cate the pres­ence of fecal mat­ter in water. It is true that some types of E. coli can make you sick, but fecal mat­ter can also con­tain an array of oth­er bac­te­ria and virus­es caus­ing var­i­ous ill­ness­es. The analy­sis of the avail­able data indi­cates that ahigh per­cent­age of the sam­ples col­lect­ed from the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er in the Grant Coun­ty area after rain events con­tain E. coli in amounts exceed­ing the water qual­i­ty stan­dards. E. coli amounts in excess of the water qual­i­ty stan­dard were also observed in sam­ples col­lect­ed dur­ing dry weath­er peri­ods. This leads to the con­clu­sion that E. coli is enter­ing the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er through anum­ber of dif­fer­entsources.

Pos­si­ble Sources of E. coli in the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er (readmore)

Upstream sources:

This includes all of the sources that con­tribute to the con­cen­tra­tion of E. coli present in the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er when it enters the Mar­i­on area from the upstream direc­tion. Ini­tial find­ings indi­cate that this source rep­re­sents asig­nif­i­cant con­tri­bu­tion to the total E. coli pol­lu­tant load observed in the Mar­i­onarea.

Waste­water treat­mentplants:

When the weath­er is dry, the City of Mar­i­on Waste­water Treat­ment Plant does an excel­lent job of treat­ing all of Mar­i­on’s san­i­tary sewage. But dur­ing storms or snowmelt events, the amount of com­bined sewage in the sew­er sys­tem can exceed the treat­ment capac­i­ty of the waste­water treat­ment plant. When this occurs, com­bined sewage is dis­charged into the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er from out­falls spec­i­fied in Mar­i­on’s Nation­al Pol­lu­tant Dis­charge Elim­i­na­tion Sys­tem per­mit. The City is work­ing to address this issue through the Com­bined Sew­er Sys­tem Long Term Con­trolPlan.

Com­bined Sew­erOverflows:

Com­bined sew­ers are designed to car­ry both san­i­tary sewage and rain­wa­ter in the same pipes. CSOs dis­charge when the vol­ume of rain­wa­ter enter­ing the com­bined sew­er sys­tem caus­es the com­bi­na­tion of san­i­tary sewage and rain­wa­ter in the sys­tem to exceed the capac­i­ty of the pipes that car­ry waste to the waste­water treat­ment plant. The points in the com­bined sew­er sys­tem designed to relieve this excess capac­i­ty are CSO dis­charge points. Dur­ing sig­nif­i­cant rain events, com­bined san­i­tary sewage and rain­wa­ter is dis­charged into the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er at these loca­tions. The City is cur­rent­ly work­ing to deter­mine the con­tri­bu­tion to the total E. coli load from CSO dis­charges, while devel­op­ing aCom­bined Sew­er Sys­tem Long Term Con­trol Plan to address the CSO issue.

Urban Stormwa­ter:

Urban stormwa­ter includes run-off from streets, park­ing lots, rooftops, and lawns that enters the stormwa­ter col­lec­tion sys­tem through catch basins placed along city streets. The con­cen­tra­tions of E. coli in urban stormwa­ter are low­er than some oth­er sources, but it is still apoten­tial­ly sig­nif­i­cant source because of the large vol­ume of stormwa­ter that enters the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er when it rains.

Fail­ing Sep­ticSystems:

Sev­er­al thou­sand homes are ser­viced by sep­tic sys­tems in Grant Coun­ty. When these sys­tems fail to oper­ate prop­er­ly, untreat­ed sewage can enter drainage tiles, the ground­wa­ter sup­ply, or per­co­late to the sur­face and even­tu­al­ly enter streams that dis­charge into the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er. The amount of E. coli con­tributed from fail­ing sep­tic sys­tems is dif­fi­cult to quan­ti­fy. The City con­tin­ues to extend sew­er ser­vice to areas served by sep­tic sys­tems when it is appro­pri­ate, and the Grant Coun­ty Health Depart­ment dili­gent­ly inves­ti­gates cit­i­zen con­cerns regard­ing fail­ing sep­tic sys­tems. It is essen­tial to prop­er­ly main­tain your sep­tic sys­tem to ensure prop­eroperation.

Com­bined Sew­erOverflow

The Mis­sissinewa Riv­er is abeau­ti­ful water­way and awon­der­ful resource for the cit­i­zens of Mar­i­on. The riv­er pro­vides aplace to enjoy awide range of recre­ation­al activ­i­ties includ­ing fish­ing, canoe­ing, and observ­ing wildlife. We must all work togeth­er to pro­tect and enhance this resource for Mar­i­on’s cit­i­zens and future generations.

Pro­tect­ing water qual­i­ty and nat­ur­al habi­tat in the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er and its trib­u­taries starts with look­ing at the sources of stream pol­lu­tion. Mar­i­on’s com­bined sew­er over­flows (CSOs) are one of many sources of pol­lu­tion con­tribut­ing to the water qual­i­ty of the Mis­sissinewaRiver.

What is aCom­bined Sew­er Over­flow (CSO)?

To under­stand com­bined sew­er over­flows, it is impor­tant to under­stand what acom­bined sew­er sys­tem is. Over 100years ago, cities rec­og­nized the need to con­struct sew­ers to car­ry sewage away from homes and busi­ness­es to pro­tect pub­lic health. Orig­i­nal­ly, sew­ers were designed to car­ry both sewage and storm water direct­ly to streams and rivers. The nat­ur­al bio­log­i­cal process­es in streams and rivers broke down the organ­ic waste from the sewage. This sys­tem was ade­quate until the grow­ing pop­u­la­tion cre­at­ed too much waste for the riv­er to clean up nat­u­ral­ly. Today, sci­en­tists under­stand that the bac­te­ria and virus­es con­tained with­in com­bined sewage can cre­ate apoten­tial health haz­ard when dis­charged into ourwaterways.

Cur­rent­ly the com­bined sew­er sys­tem car­ries sewage from our homes and busi­ness­es to the Mar­i­on waste­water treat­ment plant instead of the riv­er. How­ev­er, when it rains or there is alarge amount of snow melt, excess water that enters the com­bined sew­er sys­tem through catch basins and oth­er drainage struc­tures can exceed the capac­i­ty of the com­bined sew­er sys­tem and waste­water treat­ment plant. When this occurs, the excess water is dis­charged into the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er through CSO out­fallstructures.

What impacts do CSOs have on waterquality?

Sewage, house­hold, auto­mo­bile, and oth­er waste flow­ing into rivers and streams cancause:

A health haz­ard for peo­ple — com­bined sewage may con­tain harm­ful bac­te­ria and virus­es such as E. coli that can make peo­ple sick. Afew things you can do to pro­tect your­self and your fam­i­ly: (readmore)

  • Peo­ple should avoid con­tact with all urban streams in the Mar­i­on area dur­ing, and for at least 72hours after, arain event or aperi­od of rapidsnowmelt.
  • Par­ents should teach chil­dren to nev­er play in or near astream or riv­er with­out adult supervision.
  • Every­one should thor­ough­ly wash their hands and face after con­tact with any stream, riv­er, orlake.
  • If you wade in or fall into awater­way, you should take abath or show­er when you returnhome.

Dam­age to habi­tat and aquat­ic life — Organ­ic waste, like sewage, can con­tribute to impaired water qual­i­ty by caus­ing dis­solved oxy­gen lev­els in our streams to fall. Oth­er chem­i­cals that build up on streets and rooftops can dam­age the habi­tat of dif­fer­ent kinds of aquat­iclife.

A nui­sance to peo­ple near the riv­er — Sewage and trash from CSOs can look and smell bad, dri­ving peo­ple away from the area and low­er­ing the qual­i­ty of life for all of Mar­i­on’scitizens.

What is being done about Mar­i­on’sCSOs?

The City of Mar­i­on is work­ing to solve the prob­lems caused by CSOs. The City’s sew­er sys­tem main­te­nance pro­gram now vir­tu­al­ly elim­i­nates all dry-weath­er over­flow. Exist­ing sew­er sys­tems and waste­water treat­ment facil­i­ties are being used more effi­cient­ly and effec­tive­ly to reduceoverflows.

The City of Mar­i­on is devel­op­ing along-term plan that includes goals for CSOs, con­trol mea­sure options, and their cor­re­spond­ing costs and effec­tive­ness. Address­ing CSOs can be expen­sive, so we must con­sid­er our options care­ful­ly and find the most cost-effec­tive use for avail­ableresources.

You can be part of the solu­tion. By under­stand­ing our sys­tems, and by keep­ing informed along the way, you can help your gov­ern­ment make the best deci­sions on this seri­ous and com­plex issue. Your par­tic­i­pa­tion is vital to ensure future gen­er­a­tions will be able to enjoy cleanwaterways.

CSO Pub­lic Notification

The City of Mar­i­on has aCom­bined Sew­er Over­flow (CSO) Noti­fi­ca­tion Pro­gram designed to edu­cate and noti­fy the pub­lic about the city’s com­bined sew­er sys­tem. The pro­gram uses aCSO infor­ma­tion line, gen­er­al infor­ma­tion web­site, and signs post­ed on water­ways at var­i­ous loca­tions through­out the city to pro­vide infor­ma­tion to inter­est­ed cit­i­zens. Learn more: www​.mar​i​onu​til​i​ties​.com

Down­spout Disconnection

In an effort to reduce the amount of storm water that enters Mar­i­on’s sew­er sys­tem when it rains, the city has adown­spout dis­con­nec­tion pro­gram. In past years, there have been orga­nized ini­tia­tives that ver­i­fied the dis­con­nec­tion of down­spouts and sump pumps from the sew­er sys­tem. This phase of the pro­gram asks Mar­i­on’s cit­i­zens to con­tin­ue to part­ner with the city to improve water qual­i­ty, pro­tect our homes from flood­ing, and reduce oper­a­tionalcosts.

Rain­wa­ter that enters the city’s san­i­tary and com­bined sew­er sys­tem takes up valu­able capac­i­ty in the sew­er lines. When storm water rapid­ly enters the com­bined sew­ers, the sys­tem can become over­loaded result­ing in the dis­charge of com­bined sewage to the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er. Exces­sive amounts of storm water enter­ing the city sew­er sys­tem can also result in flood­ing of streets andhomes.

Why should Idis­con­nect? (readmore)

Com­bined sew­er over­flows dis­charge when the vol­ume of rain­wa­ter or snow melt enter­ing the com­bined sew­er sys­tem caus­es the com­bi­na­tion of san­i­tary sewage and rain­wa­ter in the sys­tem to exceed the capac­i­ty of the pipes that car­ry waste to the waste­water treat­mentplant.

The points in the com­bined sew­er sys­tem designed to relieve this excess capac­i­ty are CSO dis­charge points. Dur­ing sig­nif­i­cant rain events, com­bined san­i­tary sewage and rain­wa­ter is dis­charged to the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er at theselocations.

By elim­i­nat­ing as many sources of inflow as pos­si­ble, you are help­ing to pro­tect the water qual­i­ty of the Mis­sissinewa Riv­er and pro­tect­ing your fam­i­ly and prop­er­ty from pos­si­ble sew­er back­ups and over­flows. Also, the reduc­tion of stormwa­ter into the sew­er col­lec­tion sys­tem results in decreased main­te­nance and oper­a­tional cost for the City ofMarion.

When down­spouts and sump pumps are dis­con­nect­ed from the sew­er, both the amount of stormwa­ter and rate that stormwa­ter enters the sew­er sys­tem are reduced. Part of the water from these dis­con­nec­tions will infil­trate into the ground and nev­er enter the sew­er sys­tem. The part of the water that does run off of our yards and enters the sew­er sys­tem through acatch basin does so much slow­er than water from adirect con­nec­tion. The reduc­tion in stormwa­ter vol­ume, com­bined with the delayed entry of stormwa­ter into the sew­er sys­tem, assists in reduc­ing the num­ber of times the sew­er sys­tem becomesoverloaded.

Please help us to keep our water­ways clean, pro­tect our homes, and reducecost.

Storm Water Pol­lu­tionControl

Rain­wa­ter that falls on city streets, park­ing lots, rooftops, indus­tri­al prop­er­ties and lawns often becomes pol­lut­ed by auto­mo­tive flu­ids, indus­tri­al chem­i­cals, and fer­til­iz­ers before it enters the city’s com­bined and sep­a­rate storm sew­er sys­tems through catch basins and oth­er drainagestructures.

Pol­lut­ed stormwa­ter runoff is then car­ried through the city’s storm sew­er sys­tems and even­tu­al­ly dis­charged into our local rivers and streams with­out receiv­ing any treat­ment. These pol­lu­tants can adverse­ly affect water qual­i­ty in local water­ways, there­by cre­at­ing apoten­tial health haz­ard and degrad­ing aquat­ic life habi­tat. The City of Mar­i­on con­tin­u­al­ly works to reduce the quan­ti­ty of pol­lu­tants enter­ing area water­ways con­tained in pol­lut­ed stormwa­terrunoff.

The Fed­er­al Clean Water Act and State of Indi­ana Admin­is­tra­tive Code requires the City of Mar­i­on to devel­op and imple­ment astormwa­ter man­age­ment pro­gram that imple­ments six class­es of con­trol mea­sures to address pol­lut­ed stormwa­ter runoff. The fol­low­ing pro­vides abrief sum­ma­ry of each of the required con­trol mea­sures. The City is cur­rent­ly imple­ment­ing awide range of projects to meet all reg­u­la­to­ry require­ments. (readmore)

Pub­lic Edu­ca­tion andOutreach

This includes dis­trib­ut­ing edu­ca­tion­al mate­ri­als and per­form­ing out­reach to inform cit­i­zens about the impacts pol­lut­ed storm water runoff dis­charges can have on waterquality.

Pub­lic Par­tic­i­pa­tion and Involvement

Pro­vid­ing oppor­tu­ni­ties for cit­i­zens to par­tic­i­pate in pro­gram devel­op­ment and imple­men­ta­tion, includ­ing effec­tive­ly pub­li­ciz­ing pub­lic hear­ings and/​or encour­ag­ing cit­i­zen rep­re­sen­ta­tives on astorm water man­age­mentcommittee.

Illic­it Dis­charge Detec­tion and Elimination

Devel­op­ing and imple­ment­ing aplan to detect and elim­i­nate illic­it dis­charges to the storm sew­er sys­tem (includes devel­op­ing asys­tem map and inform­ing the com­mu­ni­ty about haz­ards asso­ci­at­ed with ille­gal dis­charges and improp­er dis­pos­al ofwaste).

Con­struc­tion Site RunoffControl

Devel­op­ing, imple­ment­ing, and enforc­ing an ero­sion and sed­i­ment con­trol pro­gram for con­struc­tion activ­i­ties that dis­turb one or more acres ofland.

Post Con­struc­tion RunoffControl

Devel­op­ing, imple­ment­ing, and enforc­ing apro­gram to address dis­charges of post-con­struc­tion storm water runoff from new devel­op­ment and rede­vel­op­ment areas. Applic­a­ble con­trols could include pre­ven­ta­tive actions such as pro­tect­ing vul­ner­a­ble areas (i.e. wet­lands) or the use of struc­tur­al BMPs such as grassed swales or bufferstrips.

Pol­lu­tion Pre­ven­tion Good Housekeeping

Devel­op­ing and imple­ment­ing apro­gram with the goal of pre­vent­ing or reduc­ing pol­lu­tant runoff from munic­i­pal oper­a­tions. The pro­gram must include munic­i­pal staff train­ing on pol­lu­tion pre­ven­tion mea­sures and tech­niques (e.g.: reg­u­lar street sweep­ing, reduc­tion in the use of pes­ti­cides or street salt, or fre­quent catch-basin cleaning).

How You CanHelp

The fol­low­ing list is just afew of the things you can do to pro­tect our water­ways. (readmore)

Get Involved

This is one of the most impor­tant things you can do to pro­tect our streams, rivers and lakes. Make an effort to find out what is going on in your com­mu­ni­ty regard­ing water qual­i­ty issues. You can do this by attend­ing pub­lic meet­ings, join­ing alocal water­shed orga­ni­za­tion or sched­ul­ing atime to meet with local offi­cials. The City encour­ages you to ask ques­tions when you see things going on you are curi­ousabout.

Around theHouse

Dis­con­nect and prop­er­ly route down­spouts at your homes and busi­ness­es. Down­spouts con­nect­ed to the sew­er sys­tem can con­tribute to sew­er back-ups and com­bined sew­er over­flows. For addi­tion­al infor­ma­tion, please refer to the Down­spout Dis­con­nec­tionsection.

Prop­er­ly main­tain your sep­tic sys­tem. If you have asep­tic sys­tem at your home, it is impor­tant to ensure that it is func­tion­ingproperly.

Dis­pose of house­hold chem­i­cals and pet waste prop­er­ly. Dis­pose of your home chem­i­cals such as paint, sol­vents, clean­ing agents, and mer­cury prop­er­ly. For infor­ma­tion about how to dis­pose of these mate­ri­als, con­tact the East Cen­tral Indi­ana Sol­id Waste Dis­trict at 7656402535. Nev­er pour any of these mate­ri­als into asew­er or storm drain. You may put small amounts of pet waste in the trash, the toi­let, or buryit.

Fix plumb­ing leaks and con­serve water. Atiny leak can add up to agal­lon in min­utes. Sav­ing water saves you mon­ey and puts less water in the sew­er. Less water in the sew­er makes it less like­ly to over­flow in astorm.

Sweep up debris on side­walks instead of wash­ing it away with agar­den hose. By vol­ume, sed­i­ment is the largest pol­lu­tant enter­ing the nation’s streams and rivers. The dirt and grav­el that runs off of our side­walks and streets has aneg­a­tive impact on the water qual­i­ty of our streams andrivers.

Your Car

Dri­ve less. Take the bus, car­pool, ride abike, or plan your trips to be more effi­cient. You’ll save mon­ey on gaso­line and reduce street pol­lu­tion wash­ing into our streams andrivers.

Dis­pose of your motor oil, antifreeze, bat­ter­ies, and oth­er waste prod­ucts prop­er­ly. There are cur­rent­ly numer­ous loca­tions to recy­cle these mate­ri­als. For infor­ma­tion about how to dis­pose of these mate­ri­als, con­tact the East Cen­tral Indi­ana Sol­id Waste Dis­trict.

Keep your car tuned, and peri­od­i­cal­ly check for flu­id leaks. This keeps oil from leak­ing onto the ground and can increase gas mileage — sav­ing you mon­ey and pro­tect­ing the envi­ron­ment by reduc­ing water and airpollution.

Wash your car or oth­er out­door equip­ment at acom­mer­cial car­wash instead of at your home. The grease, oil and oth­er chem­i­cals that we wash off of these items can run off of our dri­ve­ways and lawns and enter the storm sew­er sys­tem and even­tu­al­ly dis­charge to local streams and rivers. Even the soaps we use to clean these items can cause prob­lems for some aquat­iclife.

Use kit­ty lit­ter or oth­er absorbents to soak up spills. Nev­er wash spills away with agar­den hose. Pour kit­ty lit­ter on oil leaks and oth­er house­hold chem­i­cal spills to soak themup.

Around theYard

Use less lawn chem­i­cals and always fol­low the label direc­tions. Rain can wash away your fer­til­iz­ers and pes­ti­cides, which is abig waste for you, and tox­ic forfish.

Clear street gut­ters and storm drains of trash, leaves and grass. Trash may clog the drains and cause your street to flood in astorm. Leaves and grass wash into our streams and rivers where they decay, reduc­ing the oxy­gen in the water that fish need to sur­vive. Trash and debris can also cause numer­ous prob­lems for fish and oth­er aquat­icanimals.

Com­post leaves, branch­es, and grass clip­pings. Com­post makes great mulch for your gar­den or flowerbed. Leave grass clip­pings on the lawn as you mow to return nutri­ents to yourlawn.

Pick up trash and lit­ter in your yard. Much of the trash in our yards and along road­ways will even­tu­al­ly find its way to astream or riv­er. This not only caus­es anui­sance, but fish and some birds can become trapped in some types of trash, and candie.

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