Final Project Report - Flip eBook Pages 1-50 (2023)

POLITEKNIK MERSING

SMART AGRICULTURE MONITORING AND CONTROLLING
SYSTEM

NAME REGISTRATION NO
TAMIL SELVI A/P RAVI CHANDRAN 25DEE19F1022

JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN ELEKTRIK
DAN ELEKTRONIK

1

POLITEKNIK MERSING

SMART AGRICULTURE MONITORING AND CONTROLLING
SYSTEM

NAME REGISTRATION NO
TAMIL SELVI A/P RAVI CHANDRAN 25DEE19F1022

This report submitted to the Electrical Engineering Department in fulfillment
of the requirement for a Diploma in Electrical and Electronical Engineering

JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN ELEKTRIK
DAN ELEKTRONIK

2

DECLARATION OF AUTHENTICITY AND OWNERSHIP

SMART AGRICULTURE MONITORING AND CONTROLLING
SYSTEM

1. Im, TAMIL SELVI A/P RAVI CHANDRAN (KP NO: 991010-10-1001) Im a Diploma in Electrical
and Electronical Engineering, Mersing Polytechnic, located at Jalan Nitar, 86800 Mersing, Johor.

2. I acknowledge that the Smart Agriculture Monitoring and Controlling System and the intellectual
property contained therein are the result of my original work/ invention without taking or copying
any intellectual property from other parties.

3. I agree to relinquish ownership of the intellectual property of Smart Agriculture Monitoring and
Controlling System to Mersing Polytechnic to meet the requirements for the award of a Diploma in
Electric and Electronic Engineering to me.

Made and truly acknowledged) ) ……………………………………………..
by the said; ) TAMIL SELVI A/P RAVI CHANDRAN
TAMIL SELVI A/P RAVI CHANDRAN
(Identity Card No.: 010820100226)

In front of me, Ts. MURUGAN KRISHNAN) ) ……………………………………………
as Project Supervisor on the date: 28 March 2021. )

11/01/2022

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, praise to God because I was able to complete my final year project 1 report
within a predetermined time. I would like to say thank you to everyone that have been involved
helping in finishing my project whether directly or indirectly.

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor Ts. Murugan Krishnan for his
moral support, guidance, ideas, and encouragement throughout this semester. With hisinvaluable
comments and advice, it really helps to improve my report.

My high appreciation to my friends and family for helping me to collect data at their place.
Without their help I can’t able to complete my project based and (Smart Agriculture Monitoring and
Controlling System) as a Smart Farming system. Besides I also indebted to my friend who helped a
lot to complete my project without their kindness helping me, my project can’t be completed as
today. Not forgetting my family that helped to give inspiring support and advice when I feel like to
give up and feeling down. Thanks to

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ABSTRACT

The Internet of Things (IoT) describes a network infrastructure of identifiable things that
share data through the Internet. A smart farm is one of the applications for the Internet of Things.
In a smart farm, agriculture appliances could be monitored and controlled remotely. This raises
ademand for reliable security solutions for IoT systems. This paper provides us with a method
to check the moisture level, water quality of the soil and presence and absence of light with use
of IOT. Agriculture is done in every country from our ascents period. Agriculture is the art of
cultivating plants. As known already, agriculture is considered as the key development in human
civilization. For trending in agriculture IOT plays important role in smart agriculture. Now let
me explain how this works IOT sensors are helpful in providing information about agriculture
fields. Using the IOT based agriculture monitoring system helps us in collecting data from the
wireless sensors networks and this information sends through the wireless protocol. When the
system is implemented then it will receive the data from the three different sensors and this data
will be send to the mobile phone and it will alert the user through the IoT. This data will be
displayed in blynk interface where you will see the data about the temperature and soil moisture
level, humidity, water quality. Temperature is often a specific level; it's supported the sort crops
cultivated. If it is intended to forcefully shut down (stop) the water with the help of the proposed
IoT model, there will be a button given from where the pump is often forcefully stopped. The
information can be accessed by the farmers with the use of smart devices.

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ABSTRAK

Internet of Things (IoT) menerangkan infrastruktur rangkaian perkara yang boleh
dikenal pasti yang berkongsi data melalui Internet. Ladang pintar adalah salah satu aplikasi untuk
Internet Perkara. Di ladang pintar, peralatan pertanian boleh dipantau dan dikawal dari jauh. Ini
menimbulkan permintaan untuk penyelesaian keselamatan yang boleh dipercayai untuk sistem
IoT. Kertas kerja ini memberi kita kaedah untuk memeriksa tahap lembapan, kualiti air tanah dan
kehadiran serta ketiadaan cahaya dengan menggunakan IOT. Pertanian dilakukan di setiap negara
dari zaman pendakian kita. Pertanian ialah seni menanam tumbuhan. Seperti yang sedia maklum,
pertanian dianggap sebagai pembangunan utama dalam tamadun manusia. Untuk trend dalam
pertanian IOT memainkan peranan penting dalam pertanian pintar. Sekarang izinkan saya
menerangkan cara ini berfungsi Penderia IOT membantu dalam menyediakan maklumat tentang
bidang pertanian. Menggunakan sistem pemantauan pertanian berasaskan IOT membantu kami
mengumpul data daripada rangkaian penderia wayarles dan maklumat ini dihantar melalui
protokol wayarles. Apabila sistem dilaksanakan maka ia akan menerima data daripada tiga
penderia yang berbeza dan data ini akan dihantar ke telefon bimbit dan ia akan memberi amaran
kepada pengguna melalui IoT. Data ini akan dipaparkan dalam antara muka blynk di mana anda
akan melihat data tentang suhu dan tahap kelembapan tanah, kelembapan, kualiti air. Suhu
selalunya merupakan tahap tertentu; ia menyokong jenis tanaman yang ditanam. Jika ia bertujuan
untuk menutup (menghentikan) air secara paksa dengan bantuan model IoT yang dicadangkan,
akan ada butang yang diberikan dari mana pam sering dihentikan secara paksa. Maklumat tersebut
boleh diakses oleh petani dengan menggunakan peranti pintar.

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CHAPTER TABLE OF CONTENT PAGE

1 TITLE i

2 DECLARATION OF AUTHENTICITY AND ii
3 PROPERTY RIGHTS iii
4 ABSTRAK iv
5 ABSTRACT v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
CONTENT 1
1
INTRODUCTION 2
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Project Background 3
1.3 Problem Statement 3
1.4 Project Objective 4
1.5 Research Question 4
1.6 Project Scope 5
1.7 Importance of Research
1.8 Definition of Operation 6
1.9 Summary 7
8
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 System Overview 10
2.3 Summary 10
18
METHODOLOGY 31
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Project Design and Overview 39
39
3.2.1 Project Development 42
3.2.2 Data Collection Method 43
3.2.3 Data Analysis Method
3.3 Summary 44
v
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Problem Encounters
4.3 Discussion
4.4 Summary

CONCULSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction

5.2 Conclusion 45
5.3 Recommendation 46
5.4 Limitation of Study 48
5.5 Summary 48
REFERENCES 49
APPENDIX 50

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

We read in the newspapers for many days about farmer’s losses and farmers used to work out the
soil maturity and suspicions for the production of yield. They won't worry about the temperature, water
level and simply climate conditions that are terrible to farmers. The Internet of Things (IOT) is
reconstructing the agri-business which enables farmers to deal with challenges in the field, for example
through the broad range of strategies, such as accuracy and practical farming.

IOT assists in the assembling of information regarding conditions such as climate, humidity,
temperature and soil fertility, a IOT-based examination enables the discovery of wild plants, water
levels, exact location, field interruption, field development, horticulture. IOT helps in assembling
information IOT uses farmers to connect from anywhere to anywhere to his house. Remote sensors are
used to track household conditions and smaller controls are used to control and mechanize the house
shapes

1.2 PROJECT BACKGROUND

One of the most difficult issues is because of unequal dissemination of rain water, it is
extremely hard to rancher to deal with the water similarly to every one of the products in entire
homestead it requires some water system strategy that appropriate for any climate condition, soil writes
and assortment of yields. Nursery is the best answer for this, yet for this rancher requires nonstop
following of a greenhouse to keep up every ecological condition that required for various harvests. On
the off chance that there is any adjustment in the framework should change or keep up that progression
as indicated by agriculturist guideline

(Video) Module 1 of 5: Chapters 1 - 5 - Create New Drainage Project

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1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Agriculture is the most important sector for humankind to survive their existence. Currently, we
witness how extreme weather, deteriorating soil and drying lands, collapsing ecosystems that play a crucial
role in agriculture make food production harder and harder. Most of the farmers follow very traditional
methods to cultivate their crops. They used to be present physically to their farm to monitor crops.

They could not monitor their crops always as they can’t present physically all the time especially
night times. To overcome this problem, we want to create IOT based smart agriculture monitoring and
controlling system. The benefits which farmers are obtaining by adapting the IOT program are innumerable.
For utilization of innovation in the field of horticulture assumes essential part in the expanding the creation,
and additionally in diminishing the labor endeavors.

Nowadays, there are many crops being spoiled due to lack of monitoring system. Therefore,
mechanical advancement in wireless sensor system made it conceivable to use in checking and control of
field parameters. In order to avoid low quality crops. Thus, the present project is able to develope the
production of the agriculture

1.4 OBJECTIVE

The objective of the project is to design a project to send instant alert messages to the farmer and
consequently he can work the field conditions by checking the data sent by Arduino. Besides that, to
design a project to help conceivable to use in checking and control of field parameters which are
temperature, humidity, water level, soil moisture and mixing fertilizer. Moreover, this project is to
develop agriculture using temperature sensor, humidity sensor, LDR sensor, soil moisture sensor and
water level sensor. Furthermore, to control and monitor the agriculture site using blynk app in our
smartphone.

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1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
This project might be answering so many questions and going to solve the problem related to

agriculture. Some questions have been frequently asked about the project such as:
• What environmental impact that your project has?
• What economic impact that your project has?
• What social impact that your project has?

1.6 PROJECT SCOPE
The scope of the study for this project is focus more on smart farming system. This

project able to detect the temperature, water level, humidity and also soil moisture in this
project. LDR sensor used to detect light and the automated lights will start function. Ultrasonic
sensor used to detect water level in the tank. Temperature sensor used to detect temperature in
the farming site. Humidity detected by humidity sensor. Detected data of humidity,
temperature, soil moisture and water level will be sent to the blynk apps in our smartphone. If
the soil moisture less, the water will be pumped to the soil automatically.

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1.7 IMPORTANT OF RESEARCH

Research is playing a very important role in this project, in discovering the problem and identifying
the ways to solve and making sure that we used an existing problem-solving way in the best possible
ways. Besides that, to build a project or solve a problem we need to explore and collect data so that we
can analyze it before running to a conclusion for that making research to build our project is very
important. Furthermore, by researching we can save money from wasting it by buying nonrelevant
components.

1.8 DEFINITION OF OPERATION

A Smart Agriculture Monitoring and Controlling System is an IOT based project made for the
farmer who works in an agriculture site and has a hard time working physically on the site. Our project
will lighten their burden by allowing them to monitor the agriculture site by using a smartphone A
completed and functioning Smart Agriculture Monitoring and Controlling System is now ready for As
the preceding section has shown, the project has wrapped up behind schedule but
well under budget.

At a minimum, the project set out to have a 12C LCD 16x2 Display that could display temperature
and humidity levels. This was our minimum criteria for success, and we are happy with the display that
resulted. We were also able to include soil moisture, LDR sensor, and DHT11 sensor to improvise the
project which was a success at last.

However, aesthetically the project looks exactly as we had envisioned it, and the trim we ended

up using (for both Monitoring and controlling) was better than the original design. Overall, the project

met most of its goals and we are happy to make this done. After all the things that we have been told

about our project, we are sure that this project could give something interesting. We also realize that

our project might have several risks. But with our spirit to make our project successful, we will counter

all that.

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1.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY
This agriculture monitoring system serves as a reliable and efficient system and corrective

action can be taken. Wireless monitoring of field reduces the human power and it also allows user to
see accurate changes in crop yield. It is cheaper in cost and consumes less power. The smart agriculture
system has been designed and synthesized. The developed system is more efficient and beneficial for
farmers. It gives the information about the temperature, humidity of the air, soil moisture and presence
of light in agricultural field through blynk application to the farmer. The application of such system in
the field can definitely help to advance the harvest of the crops and global production. In future this
system can be improved by adding several modern techniques like irrigation method.

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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION
The new scenario of decreasing water, drying up of rivers and tanks, unpredictable

environment, present an urgent need of proper utilization of water. To cope up with this use of
temperature and moisture, sensors are placed at suitable locations for monitoring the crops. After
research in the agricultural field, researchers found that the yield of agriculture is decreasing day by
day.

However, use of technology in the field of agriculture plays an important role in increasing
the production as well as in reducing the man power. Some of the research attempts are done for
betterment of farmers that provide systems which use technologies helpful for increasing the
agricultural yield. The cloud computing devices create a whole computing system from sensors to tools
that observe data from agricultural I field and accurately feed the data into the repositories

This idea proposes a novel methodology for smart farming by linking a smart sensing system
and smart irrigation system through wireless communication technology. It proposes a low cost and
efficient wireless sensor network technique to acquire the soil moisture, Humidity, temperature from
various locations of field and as per the need of crop water motor is enabled. It proposes an idea about
how automated irrigation system was developed to optimize water use for agricultural purposes.

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2.2 SYSTEM OVERVIEW
A microcontroller is use to control the LCD Display which will need 5V power supply. This

will not be portable because it will be stationary after it is attached to the electronic box which will
also be attached to a plywood. There will need to be communication from LDR sensor, which will
detect the absence and present of light.it will light up once it is dark and the light will off when it
brighter. we placed a LED light strips around the agriculture site to monitor the crops. The LDR sensor
is placed at the top corner of the agriculture side as it is most suitable place. Moreover, we have also
attached the DHT11 sensor to the agriculture site to detect the humidity and temperature level around
the agriculture site and will be displayed in the I2C LCD 16x2 Display. Furthermore, soil moisture
sensor is placed in the crop to monitor the soil moisture level and able to monitor it in blynk application.
Once the soil is dry the the relay allow the water pump to pump water from the water tank to the
agriculture site through water sprinkler placed in agriculture site. For the microcontroller we have used
1 analog pin (A0) for Soil moisture sensor, and there are 8 digital pins, i have used for 2 5V relay,
DHT11 sensor, Soil moisture sensor, LDR sensor, Ultrasonic sensor and for LCD Display.

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2.3 CHAPTER SUMMARY

From literature review, we can conclude that the references and studies on similar
project can be used as a source of knowledge to complete this project. Moreover, programming
and electrical are mostly applied in this project. This device turned into automatic compared to
existing device.

From literature review, we can conclude that the references and studies on similar project
can be used as a source of knowledge to complete this project. Moreover, programming and electrical
are mostly applied in this project. The microcontroller used to control the sensors and the LCD
displays and Ultrasonic sensor will need to be powered by a 5V power supply. This will not need to
be portable as the component will be soldered after its initial installation. A 5V regulator will need to
be included for some components. Therefore, a 5V chip voltage regulator are the best choices to meet
the power requirements.

There will need to be communication from LDR sensor, which will detect the absence and
present of light.it will light up once it is dark and the light will off when it brighter. we placed a LED
light strips around the agriculture site to monitor the crops. The LDR sensor is placed at the top corner
of the agriculture side as it is most suitable place.

Moreover, we have also attached the DHT11 sensor to the agriculture site to detect the humidity and
temperature level around the agriculture site and will be displayed in the I2C LCD 16x2 Display.
Furthermore, soil moisture sensor is placed in the crop to monitor the soil moisture level and able to
monitor it in blynk application. Once the soil is dry the the relay allow the water pump to pump water
from the water tank to the agriculture site through water sprinkler placed in agriculture site.

8

(Video) Identity Project Q&A

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter will discuss the methodology of the study used to achieve the objective of the
study. This chapter begins with the project design and is followed by project design. This includes
Project production method, data collection methods, data analysis methods and conclusion.
Methodology is the rules or procedures used to implement the project in detail. This step is very
important step in the implementation of this project to ensure the project is successfully completed
at set times.

Furthermore, in this chapter, there are many methods used to finish the project. In
producing a project, this step that must be taken before the project is completed. These steps should
be done with the utmost precision to produce a quality project. The result of this project, there are
some steps have been made. The next topic is topics selection. Selection of topics is very first step
before starting work encountered work related to the project. The project title should be appropriate
to the level sought diploma as a final project for the course Diploma in Electric and Electronic
Engineering.

In addition, the selection of appropriate projects to help power the creative and innovative
thinking as well as it symbolizes the level of consciousness of a person. After the project is
selected, the title of the project should be selected based on its ability to attract others to know
more about the project closely. Tittle that attracts the attention of others symbolizes the initial
status of the project. After an appropriate tittle is chosen, the step that must be taken is to choose
components to the project to be made. This is because the materials are difficult to be found will
have an impact on the projects to be made because it will probably take a long time to get it.

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3.2 PROJECT DESIGN
At my current project, we used some items and tools. Among them, NodeMcu V2 is

the main component of our project this time. In addition, there are also ancillary components that
weuse such as Relay Module, Buck Converter, Voltage Regulator LM7805, Soil Moisture sensor,
DHT11 sensor, LDR sensor, Ultrasonic sensor. Not only that, there are also basic tools we use like
Screwdrivers and etc.

3.2.1 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT
PROTUES 8 PROFESSIONAL

FIG 1. PROTUES SOFTWARE
The schematic design of the project is created by designing a circuit from proteus 8. The schematic
design of the project was created using computer software. An example of schematic design software,
as well as proteus PCB and other similar programmes. When compared to manual approaches,
computer software can help you save time and produce higher-quality PCBs. Students must obtain
software and become familiar with various software applications for each technique application and its
characteristics.

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PCB LAYOUT

FIG 2. PCB LAYOUT
Before being printed on the transparency layer, the printed circuit was meant to be labelled. Make
use of the software's SELECT TEXT menu. PROJECT TITLE, NAME, and STUDENT
REGISTRATION NUMBER are written on the printed circuit. The printer was used to complete the
circuit on the net transparency layer. Select High Quality Printing as the print quality.

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UV PROCESS

FIG 3. UV EXPOSURE MACHINE
UV transfer is one of the processes that can be employed in PCB manufacture. UV rays are emitted by
a UV exposure instrument, which transfer the printing circuit to a layer of transparency that has been
pre-sensitized. The STD is pre-sensitized and has a light-blocking coating. This process should begin
with the protector being opened. Using transparent adhesive tape, adhere layer transparency to the light
sensitive PCB that has been pre-sensitized. Because this technique uses UV Acting Positive Transfer,
be sure the transparent layer is not falling off.

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ETCHING PROCESS

FIG 4. ETCHING PROCESS
This is to remove the chopper layer tat not required on the PCB using a liqiud etchant.
Thechemical ferric chloride (FeC13) is udes to produced a highly corrosive liquid etchant. Be
carefulwhen handling these chemicals. This solution will erode the copper layer on the PCB is
not coveredby printed circuit produces by a process developer. The duration of this process on
the concentration, temperature and size of the solution produces PCB. Etching process is enter
the PCB and tighten the screw on the handle holder. Insert he holder into the rotary, spray
etching machine containing a solution of ferric acid (max capacity of 5 liters). Set the duration
for 10 minutes. Temperature 40 degree celcius and press START. When finished, rinse before
PCB in space removed from the holder.

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DRILLING PROCESS

FIG 5. DRILLING PROCESS
Drilling is the procedure of poking holes in the PCB in order to attach segments to the circuit legs.

The size of the opening is determined on the type of segment used. Depending on the size of the
component leg, use the appropriate quirky piece. When using this equipment, adhere to all safety
precautions.

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SOLDERING PROCESS

FIG 5. SOLDERING PROCESS
Soldering is the technique of brazing a circuit component to a printed circuit board (PCB). A

soldering iron, paste, and a stand are required. Before using an eye soldering iron, make sure
it's clean. To avoid simple component off, make sure your listing is created with jewelly
components and is sturdy. Soldering the legs of the components for too long can damage them
if the temperature is too high.

EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS
Equipment and tools refers to all hand tools, implements, camp equipment, drawing office and
survey instruments, medical and surgical instruments and all articles of similar nature, whether or
not they are of an expendable nature, which are not normally issued to officers personally for use
in carrying out their official duties.

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SOLDERING KITS

FIG 6. SOLDERING TOOL
A soldering iron is a device that uses heat to melt solder to join two metal pieces together. The metal
tip of a soldering iron is attached to an insulated handle. This soldering iron was utilised for personal
projects, and we also used it to solder components on the printed circuit board (PCB) for the bottom.

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MULTIMETER AND PROB

FIG 7. MULTIMETER
A multimeter is used to determine whether or not a component is in excellent working order. Aside
from that, a multimeter may be used to determine the value of a resistor by measuring it and
determining how much current or voltage must travel through the circuit. To avoid a circuit overflow,
which could result in a component being burned or broken.

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3.2.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD
DESCRIPTION OF MAIN COMPONENT
➢ NODEMCU V2
➢ BUCK CONVERTER
➢ 5V RELAY
➢ SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR
➢ DHT11 SENSOR
➢ LDR SENSOR
➢ 12C LCD DISPLAY
➢ ULTRASONIC SENSOR
➢ VOLTAGE REGULATOR LM7805
➢ 12V WATER PUMP
➢ 12V DC POWER ADAPTER

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NODEMCU V2

FIG 8. NODEMCU V2
The NodeMCU ESP8266 development board comes with the ESP-12E module containing the ESP8266
chip having Tensilica Xtensa 32-bit LX106 RISC microprocessor. This microprocessor supports RTOS and
operates at 80MHz to 160 MHz adjustable clock frequency. NodeMCU has 128 KB RAM and 4MB of Flash
memory to store data and programs. Its high processing power with in-built Wi-Fi / Bluetooth and Deep
Sleep Operating features make it ideal for IoT projects. NodeMCU can be powered using a Micro USB jack
and VIN pin (External Supply Pin). It supports UART, SPI, and I2C interface.

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BUCK CONVERTER

FIG 9. BUCK CONVERTER
The basic operation of the buck converter has the current in an inductor controlled by two switches (usually
a transistor and a diode). In the idealised converter, all the components are considered to be perfect.
Specifically, the switch and the diode have zero voltage drop when on and zero current flow when off, and
the inductor has zero series resistance. Further, it is assumed that the input and output voltages do not
change over the course of a cycle, which would imply the output capacitance as being infinite.

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(Video) January 2017 Google User Group Meeting

5V RELAY

FIG 10. RELAY
Relay is an electromechanical device that uses an electric current to open or close the contacts of a
switch. The single-channel relay module is much more than just a plain relay, it comprises of components
that make switching and connection easier and act as indicators to show if the module is powered and if
the relay is active or not.

Type text here

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SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR

FIG 11. SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR
This soil moisture sensor module is used to detect the moisture of the soil. It measures the volumetric
content of water inside the soil and gives us the moisture level as output. The module has both digital
and analog outputs and a potentiometer to adjust the threshold level.

Soil Moisture Sensor Specifications
➢ Operating Voltage: 3.3V to 5V DC
➢ Operating Current: 15Ma
➢ Output Digital - 0V to 5V, Adjustable trigger level from preset
➢ Output Analog - 0V to 5V based on infrared radiation from fire flame falling on the sensor
➢ LEDs indicating output and power
➢ PCB Size: 3.2cm x 1.4cm
➢ LM393 based design
➢ Easy to use with Microcontrollers or even with normal Digital/Analog IC
➢ Small, cheap and easily available

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LDR SENSOR

FIG 12. LDR SENSOR
LDR sensor module is used to detect the intensity of light. It is associated with both analog output pin
and digital output pin labelled as AO and DO respectively on the board. When there is light, the
resistance of LDR will become low according to the intensity of light. The greater the intensity of light,
the lower the resistance of LDR. The sensor has a potentiometer knob that can be adjusted to change
the sensitivity of LDR towards light.
Specification:

➢ Input Voltage: DC 3.3V to 5V
➢ Output: Analog and Digital
➢ Sensitivity adjustable

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DHT11 SENSOR

FIG 13. DHT11 SENSOR
The DHT11 is a commonly used Temperature and humidity sensor that comes with a dedicated NTC
to measure temperature and an 8-bit microcontroller to output the values of temperature and humidity
as serial data.
DHT11 Specifications:
➢ Operating Voltage: 3.5V to 5.5V
➢ Operating current: 0.3mA (measuring) 60uA (standby)
➢ Output: Serial data
➢ Temperature Range: 0°C to 50°C
➢ Humidity Range: 20% to 90%
➢ Resolution: Temperature and Humidity both are 16-bit
➢ Accuracy: ±1°C and ±1%

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I2C LCD DISPLAY

FIG 14.12C LCD
16×2 LCD is named so because; it has 16 Columns and 2 Rows. There are a lot of combinations available
like, 8×1, 8×2, 10×2, 16×1, etc. but the most used one is the 16×2 LCD. So, it will have (16×2=32) 32
characters in total and each character will be made of 5×8 Pixel Dots. A Single character with all its Pixels
is shown in the below picture.
12C LCD Specifications

➢ Operating Voltage is 4.7V to 5.3V
➢ Current consumption is 1mA without backlight
➢ Alphanumeric LCD display module, meaning can display alphabets and numbers
➢ Consists of two rows and each row can print 16 characters.
➢ Each character is build by a 5×8 pixel box
➢ Can work on both 8-bit and 4-bit mode
➢ It can also display any custom generated characters
➢ Available in Green and Blue Backlight

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LED STRIP

FIG 15. LED STRIP
With back adhesive. Can be stick to anywhere you want to place.

Description
➢ Color: White
➢ LEDs Number/M: 60 pcs/m; total 300leds
➢ Color temperature:6000-6500K
➢ Lumen:3-4 each led
➢ Interface shape: DC
➢ length:5meter/16.4Ft Pt
➢ Wide:8mm
➢ Weight:0.12kg
➢ Voltage :12V
➢ Wattage :24W
➢ Power consumption (W/m): 4.8W/M
➢ Certification: CCC,CE,RoHS

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ULTRASONIC SENSOR

FIG 16. ULTRASONIC SENSOR

The HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Distance Sensor is a sensor used for detecting the distance to an object using
sonar. It's ideal for any robotics projects your have which require you to avoid objects, by detecting The
HC-SR04 uses non-contact ultrasound sonar to measure the distance to an object and consists of two
ultrasonic transmitters (basically speakers), a receiver, and a control circuit. The transmitters emit a high-
frequency ultrasonic sound, which bounces off any nearby solid objects, and the receiver listens for any
return echo. That echo is then processed by the control circuit to calculate the time difference between the
signal being transmitted and received. This time can subsequently be used, along with some clever math,
to calculate the distance between the sensor and the reflecting object

ULTRASONIC SPECIFICATION.
➢ Input Voltage: 5V
➢ Current Draw: 20mA (Max)
➢ Digital Output: 5V
➢ Digital Output: 0V (Low)
➢ Working Temperature: -15°C to 70°C
➢ Sensing Angle: 30° Cone
➢ Angle of Effect: 15° Cone
➢ Ultrasonic Frequency: 40kHz
➢ Range: 2cm - 400cm

Type text here 27

12V WATER PUMP

FIG 17. 12V WATER PUMP
Possible uses/projects include; a small aquarium pump, automatic plant watering system, making a water
feature or music activated dancing water features to name but a few. When pumping a liquid the pump
runs very quietly. It works quietly with the sound level under 30db. The pump is also capable of pumping
air, though when pumping air the pump is quite noisy in comparison. The pump has a filter inside as well
as a suction cup which can help stick it to smooth surfaces tightly.
SPECIFICATION

➢ Pump size: 40 x 90 x 35 (LxWxH) mm.
➢ Outlet diameter: 6 mm
➢ External diameter: 9 mm.
➢ Operating voltage of 6~12VDC (Recommended use 9V 1A, Or 12V 1A).
➢ Operating current of 0.5~0.7A
➢ Flow rate of 1.5~2L /Min.
➢ Capable of pumping heated liquids up to 80 degrees Celsius.
➢ Suck water through the tube from up to 2m
➢ Pump water vertically for up to 3m.
➢ Lifecycle up to 2500 hours.

28

VOLTAGE REGULATOR LM7805

FIG 18. VOLTAGE REGULATOR LM7805
Voltage regulators are very common in electronic circuits. They provide a constant output voltage for a varied input
voltage. In our case the 7805 IC is an iconic regulator IC that finds its application in most of the projects. The name
7805 signifies two meaning, “78” means that it is a positive voltage regulator and “05” means that it provides 5V as
output. So our 7805 will provide a +5V output voltage. The output current of this IC can go up to 1.5A. But, the IC
suffers from heavy heat loss hence a Heat sink is recommended for projects that consume more current. For example
if the input voltage is 12V and you are consuming 1A, then (12-5) * 1 = 7W. This 7 Watts will be dissipated as heat.
7805 Regulator SPECIFICATION

• 5V Positive Voltage Regulator
• Minimum Input Voltage is 7V
• Maximum Input Voltage is 25V
• Operating current (IQ) is 5mA
• Internal Thermal Overload and Short circuit current limiting protection is available.
• Junction Temperature maximum 125 degree Celsius
• Available in TO-220 and KTE package

29

12V DC POWER ADAPTER

FIG 19. 12V DC POWER ADAPTER
A DC power supply 12v is an electronic circuit that converts an ac voltage to dc voltage. Power Adapter is
basically consisting of the following elements: transformer, rectifier, filter and regulator circuits.

Specifications

➢ Input voltage: AC 100 - 240V
➢ Output voltage: DC 12V
➢ Output current: 1A
➢ Plug Type: 3Pins (Malaysia Type)
➢ Shell material: ABS case, Aluminum
➢ base Connector: 5.5 x 2.5mm
➢ Protection: short-circuit protection, overload protection, over-voltage protection
➢ Application: widely used in Industrial automation, LED display, communications.
➢ Material: ABS

30

3.2.2 DATA ANALYSIS METHOD
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Fig.20 Block Diagram

31

(Video) 09/22/22 Planning Commission

SCHEMATIC CIRCUIT

FIG 21. SCHEMATIC CIRCUIT

CIRCUIT OPERATION

There was a connection was made in the circuit board, to make a proper circuit connection. After
installing all the component in the circuit, the circuit was tested. To ensure the circuit in good
condition, a multimeter is used to check the current flow in the circuit.

32

FLOWCHART OF PROJECT

FIG 22. FLOWCHART OF PROJECT

33

DESCRIPTION OF THE FLOWCHART
The flowchart of the Smart Agriculture Monitoring and Controlling System is as shown in figure

20. Once there is a power supply to the circuit and the microcontroller is connected to the internet the
DHT11 sensor will measure the temperature and humidity level and will be shown in LCD display. On the
other hand, soil moisture sensor will be measure and notify the relay about the dryness of the soil and will
show the soil moisture level in blynk cloud. If the soil is dry the water will be transported from the water
tank via water pump to the soil or also known as plantation area. Besides that, when the water is transported
form the water tank, the ultrasonic sensor will be measuring the water level and the reading will be
displayed in the blynk cloud. There is also another sensor used in the project which is LDR sensor it detects
the presence and absence of the light and will enable the relay to notify the LED strips to light up when its
dark.

Type text here

34

WORKING PLAN SHEDULE

FIG 23. GANTT CHART

35

PROJECT HARDWARE

FIG 24. HARDWARE OF PROJECT

36

COST OF PRODUCT QUANTITY PRICE (RM)
1 28.00
No. PRODUCT 2 17.20
1 NODEMCU V2 1 12.01
2 5V RELAY 1 13.00
3 BUCK CONVERTER 1 18.40
4 ELECTRONIC BOX 1 3.90
5 DHT11 2 6.15
6 SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR 1 18.40
7 SPRINKLER 2 8.50
8 BASIN 5 8.00
9 HOSE JOINT CONNECTOR 4 11.50
10 FEMALE HEADER 1 3.30
11 WATER TUBE 2 4.30
12 ULTRASONIC SENSOR 6 7.60
13 MALE PIN HEADER 3 18.20
14 SINGLE CORE WIRE
15 FEMALE TO MALE JUMPER 1 1.20
1 9.44
16 DC MALE CABLE
17 AC TO DC ADAPTER 12V 1 16.10
1 5.20
18 12C LCD 16X02 1 4.50
19 WATER MOTOR 12V
20 LDR SENSOR 37

3.3 SUMMARY
By writing methodology, we can know the specification of this project and the planning

in how to create this smart electricity control system. We can do some research on what is
the best components and way to solve this current probl

38

CHAPTER 4: RESULT AND ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION
The chapter is about the discussion that was done for the fabrication of the project. The discussion

is based on the problem statement and solution of the fabrication. The subject was discussed are problem
faced and its solution of the fabrication. With the implementation of this project, a lot of thing that students
need to know to ensure that the desired result can be obtained. However, careful planning is essential and
implemented the project successful very important in the implementation of this project so that work can
be performed easily and smoothly.
4.2 PROBLEM ENCOUNTERS

During project implementation, many modifications and improvements processes were made.
Problems were discussed thoroughly with the project supervisor so that we can achieve a consensus to
find a way to solve the problems. The most important problems that encountered are:

39

UNABLE TO COMPILE THE CODING AT FIRST

The code was ready but it could not be compiled in the Arduino IDE Application. The code could not
compile because there was a error with the pulse sensor library in the Arduino software.

FIG 25. CODING

Type text here

40

WIRE LOOSE CONNECTION
After soldering the components there was a wire loose connection problem in the circuit. The relay

could not notify the water pump to transport water from the tank to the agriculture site.

FIG 26. CIRCUIT TEST RUN

41

4.3 DISCUSSION
In the beginning of this chapter it has been clearly explains the background, the problem

statement and scope that lead to the main idea of the project. The objective of the project is to be achieved
along with the scope with clear briefing and ending summary. In today’s world, the maximum use of
resource is always complimented. Our project the Smart Agriculture Monitoring and Controlling System
is an IOT based project made for the farmer who works in an agriculture site and has a hard time working
physically on the site.

Our project will lighten their burden by allowing them to monitor the agriculture site by using
a smartphone. A completed and functioning Smart Agriculture Monitoring and Controlling System is
now ready for As the preceding section has shown, the project has wrapped up behind schedule but well
under budget. In this Project there is software, a program, and one application used in this project. This
software is used to write, compile, and upload programs to the NodeMCU V2 Board. Arduino IDE is the
program that was used.

In addition, we must download the libraries for each sensor we utilized and program it with
coding for it to work properly. Using blynk application for monitor and control the farm crops. This
project is focus more on smart farming system. This project able to detect the temperature, water level,
humidity and also soil moisture in this project. LDR sensor used to detect light and the automated lights
will start function. Ultrasonic sensor used to detect water level in the tank. Temperature sensor used to
detect temperature in the farming site. Humidity detected by humidity sensor. Detected data of humidity,
temperature, soil moisture and water level will be sent to the blynk apps in our smartphone. If the soil
moisture less, the water will be pumped to the soil automatically.

.

42

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